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دانلود ۴ پایان نامه با موضوعات فوق بحرانی و لجن نفتی

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دانلود 4 پایان نامه با موضوعات فوق بحرانی و لجن نفتیReviewed by رضا فرضی on Nov 5Rating: 5.0دانلود 4 پایان نامه با موضوعات فوق بحرانی و لجن نفتیدانلود 4 پایان نامه با موضوعات فوق بحرانی و لجن نفتی
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Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Treatment of Oil Contaminated Drill Cuttings

Extraction of Hydrocarbons from Drilling Waste Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FROM OILY SLUDGE USING A NOVEL PLUG FLOW REACTOR SYSTEM

Heavy Metals Removal from Oil Sludge Using Ion Exchange Textiles

چکیده پایان نامه ها
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Treatment of Oil Contaminated Drill Cuttings

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) treatment of oil contaminated drill cuttings is a promising new technology. In this work, supercritical carbon dioxide was successfully used to extract oil from raw centrifuge-underflow oil-based mud (OBM) drill cuttings obtained from active drilling sites. Extraction experiments were conducted at several conditions of temperature and pressure ranging from 35 to 60°C and 8.3 to 17.2 MPa, respectively, with a 45-minute single cycle extraction and magnetic stir bar mixing. The raw and extracted cuttings’ petroleum hydrocarbon (C10-C32) contents were determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID). An optimal single cycle extraction efficiency of 90% was obtained at 60°C and 12.4 MPa, reducing the cuttings petroleum hydrocarbon content from 17.19% to 1.76%. At the same conditions, 90-minute double cycle extraction increased the efficiency to 97%, reducing the cuttings petroleum hydrocarbon content to 0.55%. SC CO2 recovers the expensive drilling mud oil, which can be reused in the drilling operation, while leaving “clean” and dry” cuttings.

Extraction of Hydrocarbons from Drilling Waste Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

In this research, supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide is investigated for the treatment of a synthetic-based centrifuge underflow drilling waste. The process has been optimized with respect to mixing speed, vessel outlet design, initial waste mass, and the use of additives. The conditions which yield the best extraction efficiency and the least processing issues, such as solids carryover and system clogging, are treating 50 g of waste at 14.5 MPa and 40°C. The extraction was completed with a new, Teflon® vessel outlet design and a waste additive. The in-vessel mixer was operated at 50 rpm. Carbon dioxide was supplied from the pumps at 28.9 to 38.5 g-min”1. The treated waste hydrocarbon content was 0.4%, which is below Canadian regulatory guidelines for environmental release.

MICROBIAL ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FROM OILY SLUDGE USING A NOVEL PLUG FLOW REACTOR SYSTEM

The refining and transportation of crude oil often results in an inevitable accumulation of recalcitrant waste products such as oily sludge. Remediation processes such as landfarming and anaerobic landfilling have been recently ruled as inappropriate disposal methods, due to the length of time it takes for remediation to reach completion, as well as the uncontrollable release of harmful organics into the soil, atmosphere and potentially groundwater. This study focused on a biological treatment method for oily sludge using a plug flow reactor system. Biosurfactant-producing bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella oxytoca and Cronobacter dublinensis were isolated from petroleum-contaminated and uncontaminated soil samples. Optimal growth of the bacteria was observed when incubated at ±۳۰°C and biosurfactant activity was confirmed using the drop-collapse test. Oily sludge was simulated in the laboratory using fumed silica as intermediate compound to form Pickering emulsions. The recovery of oil involved the comparison of a plug flow system and a batch system. The plug flow system achieved up to 85% oil recovery from oily sludge while the batch system only achieved a maximum of 30% elution of the aqueous phase. The effect of waterflooding, in conjunction with biosurfactant-producing bacteria on the batch system had negligible effect while on the plug flow system, an increase of ±۱۰% in percentage recovery was observed.

GC-MS analysis of oil before and after the recovery process showed a reduction of concentration of certain compounds, suggesting possible degradation by bacteria or loss due to volatilization. TOC analysis showed a reduction in TOC of residual sludge, after completion of recovery process, suggesting degradation activity by bacteria trapped in the sludge matrix after the completion of the recovery process. Fifteen days after completion of recovery process, residual sludge from the plug flow system had a low TOC value of 1.03mg/L while sludge from the batch system had a much higher value of 7.119mg/L. The high percentage recovery of oil, coupled with the reduction of sludge TOC to negligible values suggest that MEOR is a feasible method for treatment of oily sludge and can be further investigated as a waste treatment procedure in the petroleum industry.

Heavy Metals Removal from Oil Sludge Using Ion Exchange Textiles

The oily sludge consume considerable amount of refiner’s budget, since it is recognized as a hazardous material. A series of regulations had been adopted worldwide restricting the disposal of petroleum wastes and forced the search for new treatment methods. Heavy metals content in oil sludge limit choices for recycling oily sludge and prevent its use in other industrial processes or as fuel oil. In this research, ion exchange textiles were used for the first time for the removal of heavy metals from oil sludge. The target metals which were tested for their removal are cadmium, vanadium, nickel, copper, zinc, and iron. Ion exchange textiles were applied directly to oil sludge to assess the performance of ion exchange process in oil sludge without using a pre-treatment stage. Then, two different pre-treatments methods were developed to enhance ion exchange in oil sludge; first pretreatment method included pretreatment of oil sludge with organic solvent. The second pretreatment method used pretreatment with aqueous solution (solvent extraction) before applying ion exchange textiles. Results showed that all metals responded positively to pre-treatment with acetone. Using this technique, vanadium was removed from oil sludge below detection limit; other metals such as cadmium, zinc, nickel, iron, and copper was removed at 99 %, 96 %, 94%, 92 %, and 89 % respectively.. The process developed by this work, provides a new economic technology for the treatment of oil sludge with regard to heavy metals removal.

 

 

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رضا فرضی
رضا فرضی
رضا فرضی هستم متولد 71 در شهرستان دیر استان بوشهر، فارغ التحصیل مقطع کارشناسی رشته مهندسی شیمی دانشگاه خلیج فارس بوشهر و در حال حاضر دانشجوی مقطع ارشد مهندسی شیمی دانشگاه شیراز می باشم..
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